MBA management

Role of Training

1) Increase in Efficiency/productivity: Training brings about increase in quantity and quality of goods produced resulting in high productivity. A well- trained employee makes better and economical use of available resources (material, machines, and equipment).Optimum utilization of resources results in reduced cost on production and higher profits.

2) Heightened Morale: Training results in increased morale of employees because of reduction in dissatisfaction at work, reduced complaints, and reduced absenteeism, and increased interest in work during the post- training period. Heightened morale results in increased loyalty to the organization.

3) Better Industrial Relations: Training provides a platform for maintaining smooth industrial relations. Employees develop a feeling that organization is taking care and interest in them through training programmes.

4) Reduced Supervision and Direction: A trained employee knows what job he has to do and how to do that job and requires no guidance and supervision. Supervisors can devote their time to solve more important problems rather than concentrating on consent and regular supervision.

5) Increasing Organizational Stability and Flexibility: Training provides opportunities for the employs to learn and acquire skills to work in several departments in an organization. Training also results in low rate of labor turnover which means high consistency in organizations in retaining people for long period of time. Low labor turnover means high organizational stability. Flexibility is ensured because employees may be placed in several departments over a period of time as they acquire multiplicity of skills through adequate training.

6) Technical Advances: The pace of the technical advancement is another reason why training is necessary. The technology is changing so fast that, if a company wants to stay in the competition it must develop the technical knowledge of its employees through continuous training.

7) Organizational Complexity: With the emergence of automation and mechanization, manufacturing of multiple products and by- products, etc., most of the companies have become complex. This calls for training in the skills of coordination, integration and adaptabilities to the requirements of growth and expansions.

8) Standardization: The methods of production are standardized through training. All trained employees follow same methods and techniques of production and hence there can be little variation in output and standards produced by different employees. By using standardized methods, the quality of output would be increased.

9) Future manpower Needs: Through proper training employees become eligible for promotion handling more responsibility. An expanding and growing organization wishes to train the existing employees so as to place them in higher positions in future.

10) Reduced Accidents at Workplace: Untrained people are bound to commit errors while handling machinery and equipment resulting in incidents at workplace. Training eliminates (reduces) the possibility of incident due to mishandling of equipment, machinery, and other resources of the organization. Proper training and development programmes ensure safety in handling the organization’s resources which results in reduction in the accident rates.

11) Reduced Learning Time: An untrained worker consumes a lot of time to learn the methods, technique of doing the work. Skilled and trained employees reach the acceptable level of performance within no time. Therefore, training results in reduced learning time.

12) Confidence: Training creates a feeling of confidence in the minds of workers. It gives safety and security to them at the workplace.

13) New skills: Training develops skills which serve as a valuable personal asset of a worker. It remains permanently with the workers himself.

14) Promotion: Training provides opportunity for quick promotion and self-development.

15) Better Management: A manager can make use of training to manage in a better way. To him, training the employees, can assist improve his planning, organizing, directing, and controlling.

16) Standardization of procedures: With the help of training, the best available methods of performing the work can be standardized and taught to all employees. Standardization will make high levels of performance rule rather than exception.

Meaning and Definition of Training

Training is the important subsystem of human resource development. Training is a specialized function and is one of the fundamental operative function and is one of the fundamental operative  functions for known resource management.

Training is a short-term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which non-managerial personnel acquire technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose . It refers to instruction in is technical and mechanical operations, like operation of some machines. It is designed primarily for non- managers, It is for a short duration and it is for a specific job- related purpose.

According to Dale S Beach, "Training is the organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and for skill for a definite purpose."

According to Planting, Cord and Efferson, "Training is the continuous, systematic development process among all levels of employees of that knowledge and their skills and attitude which contribute to their welfare and that of the company."

Performance on a currently held job or one related to it.

According to Chowdhary D.P. “Training is a process which enables the trainees to achieve the goals and objectives of their organizations.”

According to  Schermerhorn ,  Hunt and Obsorn, "Training is a set of activities that  provides the opportunity to acquire and improve job-related skills."

According to Robert N. Lussier, "Training is the process of acquiring the skills necessary to do the job."

In other words, training improves changes, molds the employees knowledge, skill, behavior aptitude, and attitude towards the requirements of the job and organization. Training refers to the teaching and learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization, to acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes needed for a particular job and organization.

Thus, training bridges the differences between job requirements and employees, present specifications.

Features of Training

1) Training objectives are tied to organization’s business objectives and industry skill standards.

2) Training objectives are derived from and continuously aligned with the organizations overall performance objectives and specific job requirements.

3) Training success is tied to the attainment of performance- based measurable learning objectives that are linked to industry skill standards.

4) Programs are developed with input from management supervisors, and employees or their representatives.

5) Training curricula, structure, and delivery methods reflect the workplace and its requirements.

6) Training curricula, structure, and delivery methods are appropriate to the organization’s organizational structure, work processes, and culture and training activities.

Incorporate and draw on and organization’s work process, tasks and materials.

7) Training addresses both occupational skill requirements and the underlie them.

8) Training supports forms of work organization that emphasize broadening employ skills and empowering employees.

9) Training activities are interactive and experiential, and include regular opportunities to integrate the knowledge and skills learned into solving problems commonly encountered on the job.

10) Training is modular so it can be adapted to workplace schedules.

11) Training is delivered “just in time.”

12) Training uses technology and materials that are comparable to those used on the job.

13) Training is reinforced on the job, once trained employee’s return to their workplace.

14) Training is tailored to trainee needs and learning styles.

15) Training is developed based upon an assessment of the target employee’s knowledge, skills, and abilities.

16) Training meets individual skill development needs as reflected in an individualized development plan (based on each trainee’s own skill levels and training goals).

17) Training uses a variety of instructional methods and media, allowing for differences in the learning styles of individual employees.

18) Training structure allows employees to learn at their own pace.

19) Training builds the learner’s ability to transfer his skills to different work settings.

20) Training builds employee understands that learning is an integral and ongoing component of successful work performance.

21) Successful training completion results in a portable credential for the learner.

22) High quality assessment is an integral part of the training.

23) Assessments used are valid and reliable indicators of job performance.

24) Expected performance outcomes and assessment methods are clearly communicated to trainees.

25) Learner needs are assessed prior to training and inform the learner‘s individualized training plan.

26) Trainees are provided regular, ongoing feedback concerning their progress while in the training program.

27) Trainees are assessed at the completion of training to ascertain learning gains and overall training programme.

28) Training staff is highly skilled and well trained.

29) Trainer is well versed in job performance requirements and has industry-based experience.

30) Evaluation is used to assure training quality.

32 ) Management, Supervisors, employees, and in unionized workplaces, union representatives participate in evaluating programme effectiveness and its responsiveness to their needs.

33) Evaluations are conducted regularly to ensure that the training programme remains on track.

Scope of Training

The organizations find themselves compelled to organize some training activities because many new entrants lack basic skills.

Considerable amount has been spent by employers on formal training.

Training of a company’s workforce results in an increase of productivity and reduces wastage. It is corporate prudence and cost effective practice to retain workers for new jobs than releasing them and hiring new ones. As training enhances the competency of the workforce, it will result in increased morale. A large number of different kinds of activities will be positively impacted if training systems are will designed.

Training can pave way for increased quality, both in the production and service sectors. Training can facilitate employee retention and faster customer service. If designed and delivered well, it will facilitate achievement of organizational objectives – the main purpose of organizational existence.

In treating training, there are three types of organization. Some organizations regard training as an unnecessary and time wasting activity. They feel that the cost of training is high and is not commensurate with the benefit derived from it.

The second type of organizations treats training as a continuous activity. They make every superior in organization responsible for training which invariably results in learning updates either in technology, methodology or in behavior.

There are some organizations where training is used as a tool to deal with specific problems. In these organizations, training happens only when there exists a problem which needs to be solved. Training is taken up with a limited objective and discontinued once the problem is solved.

Company’s selection and promotion policies have a definite bearing on training. However, certain recent changes in perception have done a lot of good to corporate training.

1) More and more skills are taught and learnt and fewer skills are regarded as inborn.

2) The change of technology is advancing at faster pace making skills of today obsolete tomorrow, thus making training and re-training imperative.

3) Globalization has resulted in diversity in lifestyles, attitude of people, working environment, etc., compelling employees to get trained in various skills like foreign languages, negotiation techniques, telephone skills, etc.


There are three basic types of inputs.
1) Skills,
2) Attitudes, and
3) Knowledge.

The primary purpose of training is to establish a sound relationship between the worker and his job – the optimum man- task relationship. Such a relationship is at its best when the worker’s attitude to the job is right, when the workers knowledge of the job is adequate, and he has developed the necessary skills.

Training activities in an industrial organization are aimed at making desired modifications in skills, attitude and knowledge of employees so that they perform their jobs most efficiently and effectively.

1) Skills: Training activities nowadays encompass activities ranging from the acquisition of a simple motor skill to a complex administrative one. Training an employee for a particular skill is undertaken to enable him to be more effective on the job. For example, new workers can be trained to achieve levels of output attained by experienced older workers .Similarly existing workers whose levels of output are below par can be retained.

2) Attitudes: Through orientation (induction) programmes, organization develops attitudes in new employees which are favorable toward the achievement of organizational goals. Training programmes in industry are aimed at molding employee attitudes to achieve support for company activities, and to obtain better cooperation and greater loyalty.

3) Knowledge: Training aimed at imparting knowledge to employees in the organization provides for understanding of all the problems of modern industry. This knowledge for a worker is specific to his job, and related broadly to plant, machinery, material product, and quality and standard of product. Knowledge for managerial personnel may be related to complexity of problems in organizing, planning, staffing, directing and controlling.

In general, training initiated for imparting knowledge to employs should consider three aspects:

(a) Knowledge in general about factory and work environment- job context.

(b) Specific knowledge related to job- job context.

(C) Knowledge related to quality and standards of product or quality of work.

Need for Training

Every organization should provide training to all employees irrespective of their qualification, skill, suitability for the job etc. Training is not something that is done once to new employees; it is used continuously in every well run establishment. Further, technological changes, automation, require up-dating the skills and knowledge. As such an organization has to retain the old employees.

Specifically, the need for training arises due to the following reasons:

(i) To Match the Employee Specifications with the job Requirements and Organizational Needs: An employee’s specifications may not exactly suit to the requirements of the job and the organization irrespective of his past experience, qualifications, skills, knowledge etc. Thus management may find deviations between employee’s present specifications and the job requirements and organizational needs. Training is needed to fill these gaps by developing and molding the employee’s skill, knowledge, attitude, Behavior etc., to the tune of job requirements and organizational needs.

(ii) Organizational Viability and the Transformation process: The primary goal of most of the organizations is their viability and efficiency. But the organizational viability is continuously influenced by environmental pressures. If the organization does not adapt itself to the changing factors in the environment, it will lose its market share. If the organization desires to adopt these changes, first it has to train the employees to impart specific skills and knowledge in order to enable them to contribute to the organizational efficiency and to cope with the changing environment. In addition, it provides continuity to the organization process and development. The productivity of the organization can be improved by developing the efficiency of transformation process which in turn depends on enhancement of the existing level of skills and knowledge of the employees. The achievement of these objectives mostly depends on the effectiveness of the human resources that the organization possesses. Employee effectiveness can be secured by proper training.

(iii) Technological Advances: Every organization, in order to survive and to be effective, should adopt the latest technology i.e., mechanization, computerization and automation. Technology alone does not guarantee success unless it is supported by people possessing requisite skills. So, organization should train the employees to enrich them in the areas of changing technical skills and knowledge from time to time.

(iv) Organizational Complexity: With the emergence of increased mechanization and automation, manufacturing of multiple products and by- products or dealing in services of diversified lines, extension of operations to various regions of the country or in overseas countries, organization of most of the companies has become complex. This leads to growth in number and kind of employees and layers in organizational hierarchy. This in turn, creates the problems of coordination and integration of activities at various levels. This in turn, creates the problems of coordination and integration of activities at various levels. This situation calls for training in the skills of co-ordination, integration and adaptability to the requirements of growth, diversification and expansion. Companies constantly search for opportunities to improve organizational effectiveness. Training is responsible for much of the planned change and effectiveness in an organization as it prepares the people to be the change agents and to implement the programmes of effectiveness.

(v) Change in the Job Assignment: Training is also necessary when the existing employee is promoted to the higher level in the organization and when there is some new job or occupation due to transfer. Training is also necessary to equip the old employees with the advanced disciplines, techniques or technology.


Training is the most important activity or plays an important role in the development of human resources. To put the right man at the right place with the trained personnel has now become essential in today’s globalized market. No organization has a choice on whether or not to develop employees. Therefore, training has nowadays become an important and required factor for maintaining and improving interpersonal and inter-group collaboration.

Reduction in Cost of production: Efficient workers do their works in the best possible manner. They make the maximum utilization of materials and machines. Thus, the cost of production is reduced.

Maximum Utilization of Materials and Machines: Training teaches the employees of the enterprise the method of doing their job in the best possible manner. As a result of it they make the best possible utilization of the materials and machines of the enterprise available to them.

Minimum possibility of Accident: Trained workers know the methods of doing their jobs in the required manner. The know-how to use the machines in the best possible manner. It reduces the possibility of accidents to the minimum.

Stability in Organization: Training brings stability in organization, because it reduces the rate of absenteeism and labor turnover. It enables the workers to do their works in the absence of any supervision. It brings stability in the organization.

High Morale: As the trained workers are capable in doing their jobs in most suitable manner and can understand the procedures and methods easily, it increases their morale. It gives them satisfaction in their work.

Improvement in the Quality and Quantity of production: Training increases the efficiency of employees which increases the quality of production and improves its quality.

Difference between Efficient and Inefficient Employees: Training provides an opportunity to evaluate the ability and capability of all the employees. An efficient employee learns the methods to do a work efficiently while an inefficient employee learns the methods to do a work very late. Thus, training provides an opportunity to measure the efficiency of workers, In efficient worker may be allocated some light job to do.

Minimum Need of Supervision: A trained worker can do his work himself efficiently. Thus, the training reduces the need of supervision to minimum.

Helpful to Managers: As there is minimum need of supervision, it helps the managers of the enterprise to concentrate upon the important problems of enterprise. They have not to waste their valuable time on supervising the workers.

Increase in Understanding: Trained workers can learn the methods and procedures of production quickly. Training improves the power of understanding among them. They can follow the technical attitudes and changes themselves easily and quickly.

Team Spirit: Training helps in including the sense of team work, team spirit and inter-team collaborations. It helps in including the zeal to learn within the employees.

Organization culture: Training helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization.

Organization climate: Training helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates and peers.


Growth, expansion and modernization cannot take place without trained manpower.

Gives people awareness of rules and procedures.

Increased innovation in strategies and products.

Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods.

Reduced employee turnover.

Enhanced company image.

Philosophy of Training

Training and development programme are more likely to be effective when they incorporate the psychological principles underlying the process of learning situation. The several concepts, which are basic to evolving a sound training programme, are as follows:

1) Employee Motivation: Motivation to learn is the basic requisite to make training and development programmes effective. Motivation comes from awareness that training fetches some rise in status and pay. Motivation alone is not enough. The individual must have the ability to learn. Ability varies from individual to individual and this difference must b considered while organizing training programmes.

2) Recognition of Individual Differences: Learning takes place on the foundation of existing behavior, which a trainee brings to the learning situation, and trainees differ in this respect. As far as possible, training practices should allow for such considerations as differences in the initial ability of individuals to make certain required sensory discriminations, individual differences in the speed of learning, age differences which facilitate or retard learning and the enhancing or hampering influences of the personality of a given instructor upon different individuals.

3) Reinforcement: Reinforcement (event) may be understood as anything that both increases the strength of response and tends to induce repetitions of the behavior that preceded the reinforcement. Positive reinforcement strengthens and increases behavior by the presentation of the desirable consequences. Positive reinforcement consists of rewarding desired behaviors and this increases the probability that the behavior will be repeated. In negative reinforcement, the individual exhibits the desired behavior to avoid something unpleasant. For example, if an employee who comes late on work assumes it an unpleasant experience, he might come on time to avoid criticism. Thus, the effect of negative reinforcement is avoidance of learning.

4) Knowledge of results (feedback): It is a necessary condition for learning. Feedback about the performance will enable the learner to learn much better than otherwise as he gets acquainted with his good points or the mistakes that he have made. Hence, it is better that the trainee should be informed of his progress.

5) Goal setting: Goal setting can also accelerate learning. Individuals generally perform better and learn more quickly when they have goals, particularly if the goals are specific and reasonably difficult. Further, goals will have better motivational value if the employee has scope for participation in the goal-setting process.

6) Schedules of Learning: Probably one of the most well-established and well-documented learning principles is that distributed or spaced practice (the task is learned after sufficient intervals between practice periods) is superior to continuous or massed practice. Schedules of learning involve;

i) Duration of practice sessions.
ii) Durations of rest sessions.
iii) Positioning of rest pauses.

7) Meaningfulness of Material: Learning is facilitated when the tasks to be learned are meaningfully related. The more meaningful the material, the better the learning process.

8) Transfer of Training or Learning: One more principle of learning that is almost all pervading and which enters in almost every learning and training situation is known as transfer of learning or training. Transfer of training may be either positive or negative. Positive transfer occurs when something previously learned benefits performance or learning in a new situation. Negative transfer occurs when something previously learned hinders performance or learning in a new situation.

i) The explanation of transfer of training is based upon the concept of identical elements, that is, the greater the number of task elements held in common, the greater the number of tasks. Transfer has been shown to be related to;

ii) Similarity of the stimulus.

iii) Similarity of the response.

iv) Lastly, it can be said that the training courses are usually devised and arranged in such a way that the possibilities of greater positive transfer are ensured.

9) Modeling: modeling is simply copying someone else’s behavior. The selected model should provide the right kind of behavior to be copied by others. Modeling others learns a great deal of human behavior. As experts put it,” Managers tend to manage as they were managed.”

10) Whole Learning: The concept of whole learning suggests that employees learn better if the job information is explained as an entire logical process, so that they can see how the various actions fit together into the “big picture”. Research studies have also indicated that it is more efficient to practice a whole task all at once rather than at different intervals.

11) Active practice: Learning is enhanced when trainees are provided ample opportunities to repeat the task. For maximum benefit, practice sessions should be distributed over time.

12) Environment: Environment plays a major role in training. It is natural that workers who are exposed to training in comfortable environments with adequate, well-spaced rest periods are more likely to learn than employees whose training conditioned are less than ideal.

13) Accuracy and Speedy Performance: Accuracy in learning become a most important factor in learning, at least, this is so in the initial stages on the learning of any task and the speed of work can come only once the job is learned with accuracy.

14) Task Guidance: learning is facilitated when the behavior of the learner is controlled through guidance.

15) Learning to Discriminate: It is important for the trainee to learn to discriminate between those aspects of a situation to which he must behave differently and those aspects to which he must respond in a similar fashion.

16) Learning and Effort: it is important to point out that as a task response is learned and the learner becomes increasingly skillful, there is a reduction in the amount of effort required to perform it.

Meaning and Definition of Learning

Learning is an important process determining human is a continuous process and it occurs all the time. Learning may be defined as the sum total of behavioral change resulting from experience at training.

According to E. R. Hillgard- Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of prior experience is known as learning.

According to Sanford - Learning as a relatively enduring change in behavior bought about as consequences of experience.

Meaning and Definition of Development

Development is a long- term  educational process utilizing a systematic and organized  procedure by which managerial personnel get conceptual and theoretical knowledge, In other words, it refers not to technical knowledge and skills in operation but to philosophical and theoretical  educational concepts. It involves broader education and its purpose is long-term development.

According to Dale S. Beach, ”Management development  is a systematic process of training and growth by which individuals gain and apply knowledge, skills, insights and attitudes to manage orientation effectively.

According to Flippo, “Management development includes the process by which managers and executives acquire not only skills and competency in their present jobs but also capacities for future managerial tasks.”

According to Koontz and Donnell, “Management development concerns the means by which a person cultivates those skills which application will improve the organizational segment are achieved.”

In simple terms, training and development refer to the imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee.

A formal definition of training and development is “it is any attempt to improve current or future  employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge.” The need for training and development is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency, computed as follows :

Training and development need  =  Standard performance - Actual performance.

Training and development programs are necessary in any organization for improving the quality of work of the employees at all levels, particularly in a world of fast changing technology, changing valves, and environment.

The purpose of both is similar. The main difference between the two is in respect to the levels of employees for whom these are meant, and the contents and techniques employed.

Principal of Learning

  • 1. Readiness - individual learn best when they are ready to learn and they do not learn well, if they see no reason for learning.
  • 2. Exercise - the principal of exercise states that those things most often repeated, are best is the basis of drill and practice.
  • 3. Effect - the principal of effect is based on the emotional reaction of the states that learning is strengthened when accompanied by a pleasant or satisfying feeling and that learning is weakened when associated with an unpleasant feeling.
  • 4. Primacy - primacy the state of being first often creates a strong almost unshakable impression for the instructor this means that what is taught must be right the first time for the student it means that learning must be right unteaching is more than be frustrated.
  • 5. Recency - the principal of recency states that things most recently learned are best remembered.
  • 6. Goal - goal setting can be accelerating learning. Particularly when it is accompanied by knowledge of results.

Nature/Characteristics of Learning

  • 1. Learning is purposeful - each student sees a learning situation from a different viewpoint. Each student is a unique individual whose past experiences affect readiness to learn and understanding of the requirements involved.
  • 2. Learning is a result of experience - since learning is a individual process the instructor can not do it for the student. The student can learn only from personal experiences.
  • 3. Learning is a active process - students do not soak-up knowledge like a sponge absorbs water. The instructor cannot assume that student remember something just because they were in the classroom. Shop or airplane when the instructor presented the material neither can the instructor assume that the student can apply what they know because they can quote the correct answer verbatim.

Define Job Analysis

Job analysis is a process used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills, outcomes, and work environment of a particular need as much as data as possible to put together a job description which is frequent outcomes of the job analysis.

Job enrichment- It attempts to provide a person with exciting, interesting, simulating and challenging other improves the quality of the jobs. This motivates the employee with higher level needs.

Define Job Evaluation

Job evaluation is a process of systematically determining a relative internal value of a job in an organization. In all cases the idea is to evaluate the job not the person doing it. Job evaluation is the process of determining the worth of one job in relation to that of the other jobs in a company so that a fair and equitable wage and salary system can be established.

Define Job Description

Job description are written statement that describe the duties, responsibilities, most important contribution and outcomes needed from a position and the reporting relationship of a particular is a detailed written account agreed between management and workers, of all the duties and responsibilities which together make up a particular job.

Define Job Specification

Job specification describes the knowledge, skill, education, experience, and abilities that are essential to perform a particular job. The job specification provides detailed characteristics, knowledge, education, skills, and experience needed to perform the job with an overview of the specific job states the minimum acceptable human qualification necessary to perform a job.

Define Recruitment

Recruitment is a process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends their application are submitted. The result is a pool applicant from which new employees are selected. Selection on the other hand is a process of picking individuals with requisite qualification and competence to fill job in the organization.

Define Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction is a degree/extent to which one likes or dislikes his/her job. Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. The happier people are within their job the more satisfied they are said to be. Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance methods include job rotation job enlargement, and job enrichment. Other influences on satisfaction include the management style, culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous work groups. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organization.

Difference between Training & Development

Employee training is distinct from management development or executive development. While the former refers to training given to employees in the areas of operations, technical and allied areas, the later refers to developing an employee in the areas of principles and techniques of management, administration, organization and allied areas, the latter refers to developing an employee in the areas of principles and techniques of management, administration, organization and allied areas. The table down below presents differences between training and development.

    Basis   Training   Development
1.   Nature   Training is an event   Development is a process.
2.   Focus   Training focuses on Technical, Mechanical oriented operations.   Development focuses on theoretical skill and conceptual ideas.
3.   Need   Training needs = Job requirement - Existing competencies   Development needs = Desired group Dynamism - existing attitude of values.
4.   Emphasis   Training is concerned with specific job skills and behavior.   Development is concerned with related enhancement of general knowledge and understanding of non-technical organization functions.
5.   Relevance   Training is mostly for non-managers.   The development is for managers and executives.
6.   Type of job   Training focuses on current jobs.   Development prepares for future jobs.
7.   Goals   Training focuses on short-term goals.   Development focuses long-term accruals.
8.   Process   Training is one- shot deal.   Development is a continuous on-going process.
9.   Orientation   The training is job-oriented process and is vocational in nature.   The development is general in nature and strives to inculcate initiative, enterprise, creativity, dedication and loyalty amongst executives.
10.   Growth opportunity   Training may result in enhancement of a particular job skill.   Development may result in personal growth and development of overall personality.
11.   Motivation   Training is the result of organizational initiative and hence motivation is extrinsic   In development the motivation is intrinsic.  
12.   Classification   Training can be classified into two major types : (i) On-the job training, (ii) Off-the job training.   No such classification is possible  
13.   Voluntary / imposed   Training is usually imposed.   Development activities, such as those supplied by management development programmes, are generally voluntary.  
14.   Relationship with career Development   The staff members may have no clear perception of the relationship between learning and career development.   Here, the staff members have experience and knowledge; a clear, direct relationship between self-development and career success.  
15.   Evaluation   Evaluation for training is considered to be Essential.   No evaluation for development is possible.  

Factors Influencing Training and Development

Change is obviously one factor that both impacts and is impacted by T&D. Other issues that often determine whether a firm achieves its T&D objectives are discussed next:

1) Top Management Support: For T&D programs to be successful, leadership support at the top is a requirement. Without top management support, a T&D program will not succeed. The most effective way to achieve success is for executives to take an active part in the training and provide the needed resources.

2) Commitment from Specialists and Generalists: In addition to top management ,all managers, whether they be specialists or generalists, should be committed to and involved in the T&D process. “The primary responsibility for training and development lies with line managers, from the president and chairman of the board on down. T&D professionals merely provide the technical expertise.”

3) Technological Advances: perhaps no factor has influenced T&D more than technology. The computer and the Internet, in particular, are dramatically affecting the conduct of all business functions. Technology has played a huge role in changing the way knowledge is delivered to employees, and this change is constantly being extended.

4) Organization Complexity: Flatter organization structures resulting from fewer managerial levels give the appearance of a simpler arrangement of people and tasks. This view, however, is not the case. The tasks of individuals and teams are now both enlarged and enriched. The result is that American workers are spending more time on the job and performing more complex tasks than ever before. Also, the interactions between individuals and groups have become more complicated. The traditional chain of command, which provides a sense of stability at the expense of efficiency, is outdated in many modern organizations.

In recent years, the increasingly rapid changes in technology, products, systems, and methods have had a significant impact on job requirements. Thus successful employees constantly upgrade their skills and develop an attitude that permits them not only to adapt to change, but also to accept and even seek it. Many organizations have changed dramatically resulting from downsizing, technological innovations, and customer demands for new and better products and services. The result is often that fewer people must accomplish more work at a more complex level. Supervisors and operative employees performing in self- directed teams are taking up much of the slack from dwindling middle-management ranks. All these changes translate into a greater need for T&D.

5) Learning Styles: The general function of T&D involves knowledge and skill acquisition. Employees at all levels must continually upgrade their expertise in a dramatically changing and increasingly competitive environment.

Although much remains unknown about the learning process, some generalizations steaming from the behavioral sciences, have affected the way firms conduct training. For example:

i) Learners progress in an area of learning only as far as they need to, in order to achieve their purposes. Research indicates that unless there is relevance meaning, and emotion attached to the material taught, the learner will not learn.

ii) The best time to learn is when the learning can be useful.

iii) Depending on the type of training, a wise move may be to space out the training sessions.

iv) Computer technology, the internet, and intranets have made these approaches economically feasible to a degree never before possible. The ability to deliver knowledge to employees on an as-needed basis, anywhere on the globe and at a pace consistent with their learning styles, greatly enhances the value of T&D.

v) Other Human Resource Functions: Successful accomplishment of other human resource functions can also have a crucial impact on T&D. For example, if recruitment and selection efforts attract only marginally qualified workers, a firm will need extensive T&D programs. A firm’s compensation package may also influence T&D efforts. Organizations with competitive pay systems or progressive health and safety programs will find it easier to attract workers who are capable of hitting the ground running, and to retain employees who require less training.

Training Skills

Training is imparting skills to employers. A worker needs skills to operate machines, and use other equipment with least damage and scrap. The employees who are to be trained can be of different types and each type would require a different type of training.

1) Unskilled workers: Unskilled workers require training is improved methods of handling machines and materials to reduce the cost production and waste and to do the job in the most economical way. Such employees are given training on the job itself, and the training is imparted by their immediate superior officers, sardars or foremen. The training period ranges from 3 weeks to 6 weeks.

2) Semi- Skilled Workers:These workers require training to cope with the requirements of can industry arising out of the adoption of mechanization, rationalization, and technical process. These employees are given training either in their own sections or departments, or in segregated training shops where machines and other facilities are usually available. The training is usually imparted by thee more proficient workers, bosses or inspectors, and caste for a few hours or a week, depending upon the number of operations, and the speed and accuracy required or a job.

The system of apprenticeship, which varies in duration from a fear to three or five years. Such training is also known as tradesmen or craftsmen training. Any apprentice programme usually takes into consideration the facts of individual differences in abilities and capacities. Such programmes are usually conducted in training centers and industry itself.

3) Other Employees: Besides the above types of employs, others-typist, stenographers, accounts clerks, and those who handle computers, need training in their particular fields; but such training is usually provided outside an industry.

4) Salesmen: Salesman are given training so that they may know the nature and quality of the products and the routine involved in putting through a deal : they are trained in the art of salesmanship, and in handling customers and meeting their challenges.

5) The supervisory staff: The supervisory staff constitutes a very important link in the chain of administration. They have to cope with the increasing demands of the enterprise in which they are employed and to develop team sprit among people under their charge and training programme for them should aim at helping the supervisor to improve their performance, and to prepare them for assuming greater responsibilities at higher levels of management.


Benefits to the organization.

Benefits to the individual.

Benefits in personnel and Human Relations, Intra-group and inter-group Relations and policy implementation.


1. Lads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes towards profit orientation.

2. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization.

3. Improves the morale of the workforce.

4. Helps people identify with organizational goals.

5. Helps create a better corporate image.

6. Fosters authenticity, openness and trust.

7. Improves relationship between boss and subordinate.

8. Aids in organizational development.

9. Learns from the trainee.

10. Helps prepare guidelines for work.

11. Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies.

12. Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organization.

13. Organization gets more effective decision-making and problem solving skills.

14. Aids in promotion of employees.

15. Aids in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.

16. Aids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work.

17. Helps keep costs down in many areas, e.g., production, personnel, administration, etc.

18. Develops a sense of responsibility to the organization for being competent and knowledgeable.

19. Improves labor-management relations.

20. Reduces outside consulting costs by utilizing competent internal consultation.

21. Stimulates preventive management as opposed to putting out fires.

22. Eliminates suboptimal behavior (such as hiding tools).

23. Creates an appropriate climate for growth, communication.

24. Aids in improving organizational communication.

25. Helps employees adjust to change.

26. Aids in handling conflict, thereby helping to prevent stress and tension.


1. Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving.

2. Through training and development, motivational variables of recognition, achievement, growth, responsibility and advancement are internalized and operationalized.

3. Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence.

4. Helps a person handle stress, tension, frustration and conflict.

5. Provides information for improving leadership, knowledge, communication skills and attitudes.

6. Increases job satisfaction and recognition.

7. Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills.

8. Satisfies personal needs of the trainer (and trainee).

9. Provides the trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/her own future.

10. Develops a sense of growth in learning.

11. Helps a person develop speaking and listening skills: also writing skills when exercises are required.

12. Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks.


1. Improves communication between groups and individuals.

2. Aids in orientation for new employee and those taking new jobs through transfer or promotion.

3. Provides information on equal opportunity and affirmative action.

4. Provides information on their government laws and administrative policies.

5. Improves interpersonal skills.

6. Makes organizational policies, rules and regulations viable.

7. Improves morale.

8. Builds cohesiveness in groups.

9. Provides a good climate for learning, growth, and co-ordination.

10. Makes the organization a better place to work and live.


1. Trained employees generally don’t have someone there to motivate them when they feel sluggish.

2. Training programme are a costly affair.

3. Training is a time consuming process.

4. Since the training programme makes the trained employees responsible, the working time in organizations may also increase.

5. After training the responsibility on the shoulder of employees increases.

6. Since training programs are a costly affair special care is needed when these programs are drafted.

7. After being trained the employees have to face tough targets.

8. Training also increases completion between organizations.

9. When an employee is trained specifically for a specific job he has to work on set patterns which creates a disciplined atmosphere in the organization which sometimes frustrates employees and thus their morale declines.

10. Repetition of work creates the feeling of boredom among employees.

11. “No men can be perfect “. This quotation is quite correct but when an employee is been trained the employer hardly excuse an employee for any mistake been done by him as they think that after being trained a men should be perfect.

12. Sometimes employees after being trained feel dissatisfied with their job, switches over to another job. In this case, the organization bears the loss of investment done on employees during the process of training but on the other side, it is beneficial for the employees in the way, that after being trained their skill improves and they get better job opportunities with increased salary.

13. Training also develops a feeling of jealous and competition among employees. When an employer praise an employee for his good work. It can be more clarified in a way that training does not develop the skills among employs at a similar rate as every individual’s ability, talents and skills varies with each other.

14. The disadvantage of training on the part of employees is that before giving training to the employees the organization ask the employees to sign thee bond which hurdles the development of that skilled employee as he cannot switch over to another job prospects with increased salary but on the other part is beneficial for the organization as it prevents the organization from bearing the loss of investment on employee cannot leave the job until the bound is effective.

15. The main disadvantage of training is that sometimes there is natural skill in some employees, which may be productive to the organization but such employees do not get chance to uplift themselves and get promotion and is skipped off in comparison to less skilled trained employees.

Training Process

Training process consists of six steps:

Organizational Objectives and strategies.

Assessment of training Needs.

Establishment of Training Goals.

Designing Training and Development Programme.

Implementation of the Training Programme.

Evaluation of Results.


The first step in the training process in an organization is the assessment of its objectives and strategies. What business are we in? At what level of quality do we wish to provide this product or service? Where do we want to be in the future? it is only after answering these and other related questions that the organization must assess the strengths and weaknesses of its human resources.


Needs assessment diagnoses present problems and future challenges to be met through training and development. Organizations spend vast sums of money (usually as a percentage on turnover) on training and development. Before committing such huge resources, organizations would do well to assess the training needs of their employees.

Needs assessment occurs at two levels-group and individual. An individual obviously needs training when his or her performance falls short of standards, that is, when there is performance deficiency. Inadequacy in performance may be due to lack of skill or knowledge can be remedied by training. Faulty selection, poor job design, uninspiring supervision or some personal problem may also result in poor performance. Transfer, job redesign, improving quality of supervision, or discharge will solve the problem.

Assessment of training needs occurs at the group level too. Any change in the organization’s strategy necessitates training of groups of employees. For example, when the organization decides to introduce a new line of products, sales personnel and production workers have to be trained to produce, sell and service the new products. Training can also be used when high scrap or accident rates, low morale and motivation, or other problems are diagnosed.


Once training needs are assessed, training and development goals must be established. Without clearly-set goals, it is not possible to design a training and development program and, after it has been implemented, there will be no way of measuring its effectiveness. Goals must be tangible, verifiable, and measurable. This is easy where skill’s training is involved. For example, the successful trainee will be expected to type 55 words per minute with two or three errors per page .But behavioral objectives like attitudinal changes can be more difficult to state Nevertheless, clear behavioral standards of expected results are necessary so that the programme can be effectively designed and results can be evaluated.


Every training & development programme must address certain vital issues:

Who participates in the programme?

Who are the trainers?

What methods and techniques are to be used for training?

What should be the level of training?

What learning principles are needed?

Where is the programme conducted?


Once the training programme has been designed, it needs to be implementation is beset with certain problems, in the first place, most managers are action-oriented and frequently say they are too busy to engage in training efforts. Secondly, availability of trainers is a problem. In addition to possessing communication skills, the trainers must know the company’s philosophy, its objectives, its formal and informal organization, and the goals of the training programme. Training and development requires a higher degree of creativity than, perhaps, any other personnel specialty.

Programme implementation involves action on the following lines:

Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities.

Scheduling the training programme.

Conducting the programme.

Monitoring the progress of trainees.


The last stage in the training and development process is the evaluation of results. Since huge sums of money are spent on training and development, how far the programme has been useful must be judged/determined. Evaluation helps determine the results of the training and development programme. In practice however, organizations either overlook or lack facilities for evaluation.
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Review Questions
  • 1. Explain the meaning and nature of training and development.
  • 2. Write notes on the scope and aspects of industrial relations.
  • 3. Write notes on - Need for Trade union, Objectives of a Trade union and functions of Trade union.
  • 4. Explain the concept of workers participation in management. Also discuss the evolution of this concept.
  • 5. Meaning and definition of Grievance.
  • 6. Define the Concept of collective bargaining.
  • 7. Define the 'Industrial Dispute' under the industrial disputes act 1947.
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