MBA management

Nature, Scope and Process of Management

Right from the beginning of the civilization and from the time people began to live in groups, the practice of management had began. Management is essential for any orgranization be it small or big and to profit or not for profit enterprises. This unit-Essentials of Management-is to foster excellence within you-the prospective managers. Management operates through various functions, often classified as planning, organizing, leading/motivating and controlling... principles of management.

Manager and Environment

Manager may refer to as anyone who uses management skills or holds the organizational title of "manager". A manager is the person responsible for planning and directing the work of a group or individuals, monitoring their work, and taking corrective action when necessary. Managers may direct workers directly or they may direct several supervisors who direct the workers. The manager must be familiar with the work of all the groups he/she, but does not need to be the best in any or all of the areas... principles of management


Planning is deciding in advance what is to be done. It involves the selection of objectives, policies and programmes from among alternatives. It is the basic function of management. It deals with chalking out a future course of action & deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre-determined goals. According to KOONTZ, “Planning is deciding in advance – what to do, when to do & how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be”. A plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making. Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals. Thus, planning is a systematic thinking about ways & means for accomplishment of predetermined goals. Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human & nonhuman resources. It is all pervasive, it is an intellectual activity and it also helps in avoiding confusion, uncertainties, risks, wastages etc.... principles of management

Decision Making Models and Techniques

If you want to lead effectively, you need to be able to make good decisions. If you can learn to do this in a timely and well-considered way, then you can lead your team to spectacular and well-deserved success. The techniques in this section help you to make the best decisions possible with the information you have available. They help you map out the likely consequences of decisions, work out the importance of individual factors, and choose the best courses of action. The section starts with some simple techniques that help you to make decisions where many factors are claiming your attention. It then moves on to explain more powerful techniques, such as use of Decision Trees, 6 Thinking Hats and Cost/Benefit Analysis, which are routinely used in commercial Decision Making... principles of management

Organizing Process

Delegation is the process which enables a person to assign a work to others and delegate them with adequate authority to do it. It is the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources and developing productive relationship amongst them for achievement of organizational goals. According to Henry Fayol, “To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital and personnel’s”. To organize a business involves determining & providing human and non-human resources to the organizational structure... principles of management

Essentials of Directing

Directing is that part of management process which actuates the members of an organization to work efficiently and effectively for the attainment of organizational goals. It includes making assignments, issuing orders and instructions, providing guidance and inspiration to subordinates for the achievement of organizational objectives. Directing is a complex function as it deals with people whose behaviour is unpredictable. Effective direction is an art which a manager can learn and perfect through practice... principles of management


Control is one of the managerial functions like planning, organizing, staffing and directing. It is an important function because it helps to check the errors and to take the corrective action so that deviation from standards are minimized and stated goals of the organization are achieved in desired manner. It implies measurement of accomplishment against the standards and correction of deviation if any to ensure achievement of organizational goals. The purpose of controlling is to ensure that everything occurs in conformities with the standards. An efficient system of control helps to predict deviations before they actually occur. According to Theo Haimann, “Controlling is the process of checking whether or not proper progress is being made towards the objectives and goals and acting if necessary, to correct any deviation”. According to Koontz & O’Donell “Controlling is the measurement & correction of performance activities of subordinates in order to make sure that the enterprise objectives and plans desired to obtain them as being accomplished”... principles of management


It is the function of manning the organization structure and keeping it manned. Staffing has assumed greater importance in the recent years due to advancement of technology, increase in size of business, complexity of human behavior etc. The main purpose of staffing is to put right man on right job i.e. square pegs in square holes and round pegs in round holes. According to Kootz & O’Donell, “Managerial function of staffing involves manning the organization structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal & development of personnel to fill the roles designed un the structure” Staffing involves:

• Manpower Planning (estimating man power in terms of searching, choose the
person and giving the right place).
• Recruitment, selection & placement.
• Training & development.
• Remuneration.
• Performance appraisal
• Promotions & transfer...... principles of management

Japanese Management Culture

The culture of Japanese management so famous in the West is generally limited to Japan's large corporations. These flagships of the Japanese economy provide their workers with excellent salaries and working conditions and secure employment. These companies and their employees are the business elite of Japan. Though not as much for the new generation still a career with such a company is the dream of many young people in Japan, but only a select few attain these jobs. Qualification for employment is limites to the few men and women who graduate from the top thirty colleges and universities in Japan. Placement and advancement of Japanese workers is heavily based on educational background.... principles of management

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Review Questions
  • 1. Define 'Management'.
  • 2. What are the various managerial skills?
  • 3. Write a note on Autocratic style of leadership.
  • 4. What is 'Organisational Development'?
  • 5. What is informal communication?
  • 6. What are various skills that a successful manager must possess? Are all these skills equally important?
  • 7. What are the major disadvantages of written communication?
  • 8. Review the concept of decentralization. How effective is it?
  • 9. What is the role of money in motivation? Explain.
  • 10. Explain the process of organisational development.
  • 11. What do you mean by the term process of Management? Name the essential elements in the process of management.
  • 12. What are the various stages in the process of rational decision making? Discuss with reference to a business decision.
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