MBA management

Development of Communication and Information Technology topics:


Development of Information and Communication Technologies is a general term referring to the application of Information and Communication Technologies within the world of socioeconomic development. Communication and Information technology concerns itself directly with overcoming the barriers of the digital divide. Communication and Information Technology development can be applied either in the direct sense, where the development assists and aids organizations or non-governmental organizations or governments or business in order to improve socio-economic conditions. In many impoverished regions of the world, legislative and political measures are required to facilitate or enable application and development of Communication and Information Technology.

Communication and Information Technology Development is more typically associated with applications in developing countries. It is becoming recognized as an interdisciplinary research field as can be noted by the number of conferences, workshops and publications in the field. Such research has been spurred on in part by the need for scientifically validated benchmarks and results, which can be used to measure the efficacy of current projects. Many international development agencies recognize the importance of Communication and information technology. For example the World Bank’s GICT section has a dedicated team of some 200 staff working on these issues.

A good example of the impact of communication and Information Technology on development is African farmers getting better market price information and thus not being impoverished by unfair crops buy-out people. Another example includes mobile telecommunications and radio broadcasting fighting political corruption in Burundi.

The history of Development of Communication and Information Technology can be divided into three periods:

Communication and Information technology Development in mid-1950s to late- 1990s.
During this period (before the creation of the team Communication and Information Technology Development), the focus was on computing/data processing for back office applications in large government and private sector organizations in developing countries.

Communication and Information Technology Development between the Period 1990 and 2000.
The combined advent of the Millennium development Goals and mainstream usage of the Internet in industrialized countries led to a rapid rise in investment in Information Technology and Communication programs/projects in developing countries. The most typical application was the Tele Centre, used to bring information on development issues such as health, education, and agricultural extension into poor communities. More recently, Tele Centre’s were also gale to deliver online or Partly-online government services.

Communication and Information Technology Development in late- 2000s onwards.
There is no clear boundary between phase 1 and 2 but suggestions of moving to a new phase include the change from the Tele Centre to the mobile phone as the archetypal application: less concern with e-readiness and more interest in the impact of Information Technology and Communication on development; and more focus on the poor as producers and innovators with Information Technology and Communication (as opposed to just consumers of Information Technology and Communication based information).

The Main features of Communication and Information Technology Development are:

- Infrastructure: Providing suitable computer hardware, operating systems, software, and connectivity to the internet. These would include the affordability of software and hardware, the ability to share software (as echoed in the Free Software movement), and the ability to sustainably connect to the internet.

- Capacity building and training in Information Technology: Installing, maintaining, and developing hardware and software, digital literacy (Technological literacy and informational literacy) and e-Awareness.

- Digital content and service: e-services (e-learning, e-health, e-business/e-commerce), including concerns related to local-language solutions in computing, and the Open Access agenda.

Problems of Communication and Information Technology

Communication and Information technologies in underdeveloped areas face well-known problems concerning crime, problems of adjustment to the social context, and also possibly infrastructural problems.

A growing perspective in the field is also the need to build to build projects that are sustainable and scalable, rather than focusing on those which must be propped up by huge amounts of external funding and cannot survive for long without it.

Also ,many so –called “developing” countries, such as India( or other South Asian countries like Sri Lanka, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, as also nations like Malaysia, China, Indonesia, Brazil, South Africa and many others) have proved their skills in IT ( information technology). In this context, unless these skills are tapped adequately to build on development of communication and Information Technology projects, not only will a lot of potential be wasted, but a key indigenous partner in the growth of this sector would be lost. Also there would be unnecessary negative impact on the balance of payments due to imports in both hardware and software.

Currently, the main two perspectives coming out of this sector either emphasize the need for external aid to build infrastructure before projects can touch viability, or the need to develop and build on local talent. Both approaches are, of course, not mutually exclusive.

As it has grown in popularity, especially in the international development sector, Communication and Information Technology Development has also increasingly come under criticism. For instance, questions have been raised about whether projects that have been implemented at enormous cost are actually designed to be scalable, or whether these projects make enough of an impact to produce noticeable change.

Further criticism of Communication and Information Technology Development concerns the impact of development on traditional cultures and the so-called cultural imperialism which may be spread with development. For example, young males are tempted to spend their recreational time playing violent computer games. It is emphasized that local language content and software seem to be good ways to help soften the impact of communication and Information Technology Development in developing areas.


The term computer hardware refers to the physical components of z computer, namely Keyboard, monitor, Mouse, and Printer, including thee digital circuitry. Computer hardware is an integral part embedded in all modern day automobiles, microwave ovens, electrocardiograph machines, compact disc players, and other devices. The hardware of a computer is not changed frequently, in contrast with software and data. The present computers are much advanced in terms of processing speed and have an efficient memory structure.

A personal computer, very commonly known as the PC or the home computer, refers to a microcomputer whose price, size, and capabilities make it suitable for personal usage. They are normally single- microprocessors, single user systems designed for general-purpose applications. They have sufficiently large amount of internal memory to store programs and documents. A computer, indeed, is a machine that can perform a number of tasks for us. It can accept and store data, process it and produce the output. For performing these functions, computer systems consist of Input devices, a Central processing Unit (CPU) and Output devices.

The foremost task of a computer is to accept data. An input device is used to accomplish this task. An input device is used to enter the data and instructions into the computer. Advancement in the computer technology has resulted in a variety of devices being available in the market. Key board and mouse are the most commonly used input devices.


Keyboard is the most popular input device that allows users to type alphabets, numbers, and operators, and also to control the cursor on the screen.


Mouse is a pointing device that allows user to point to a specific position on the screen. It has two or three buttons on top for selecting/executing different operations. Pressing buttons of mouse is known as clicking of mouse. The mouse is placed on flat surface and moved around to move its controlling arrow on screen. The arrow showing the position of mouse on screen is known as mouse pointer. Left button of mouse is used execute the operation associated with it. Right button/ middle buttons are associated with special operations in different situations.

Monitor/Visual Display Unit

It is a device used to provide the processed data from the computer to the user. Monitor (VDU/Screen) and printer are the most commonly used output devices. The usage of some of the commonly used output devices is given below A Monitor is an output device, very similar to the television screen. It displays the information as it is typed and also displays the processed result or the output. It is available in many forms: cathode ray picture tube based display, liquid crystal based display (LCD).


Printers are famous output devices connected to the computer system which are used for creating hard copy .Printer acts as an important output device which gives processed result or output in a paper output.

Classification of printers

The printers are classified as under:

Impact printers

- These printers have a mechanism that touches the paper in order to create an image. The Dot Matrix Printer is an example of this type.

Non–impact printers

- These printers do not touch the paper when creating an image. The inkjet and laser printers are examples of this type.

Dot Matrix Printers

Printers in this category print thee characters/ images using dots through inked ribbon. These printers are very economic and require very less maintenance cost. The print quality of the dot matrix printer is decided by the quantity of pins it has. The number of the pins can vary from nine to twenty four, depending on the kind of dot matrix printer. When compared to the other kind of printers, like the laser printers or the ink jet printer, the dot matrix printer is much more expensive. The dot matrix printer has a tendency to make a lot of noise when compared to the other kinds of printers. This is why the dot matrix printer is not very popular among customers. Quality of print in this category is not very high but is highly suitable for printing situations requiring multiple copies. These printers can print through hammering pattern of dots on the printing ribbon and can thus print multiple copies of document if multiple papers separated by Carbon papers are inserted in it. Note that this feature is not available with any other category of printers.

Inkjet/Deskjet/Bubblejet Printer

Printers in this category are most popular. These printers are very low priced with high running/ maintenance cost. These printers work on liquid ink technology and print the image using circuit-controlled jet of ink. An inkjet sprays the ink onto the paper in tiny droplets to from text and graphics. Printing speed of these printers is not very high compared to Laser Printers. These printers are suitable for people having less printing jobs with a desirable print quality. These printers are available in ‘Coloured’ and ‘Black & White’ options.

Different companies have branded their products using the same technology with different names e.g. Hewlett Packard ( HP) manufactures deskjet Printers Epson manufactures Inkjet Printers.

Laser Printer

These printers use a technique, which is a combination of laser and Xerox technology. The technology involves dry powder based ink, which is adhered to a drum through magnetic force, and when a paper is passed through the drum it releases ink on that paper. These are the fastest available printers in the category and are most suitable for uses involving high –speed quality prints.

Storage Devices

The storage devices of a computer are used to hold data temporarily and permanently. Storage devices record the data and the same may be recalled by the user whenever it is needed .There are two types of storage devices primary Storage Devices and Secondary Storage Devices.

Primary Storage Devices consists of RAM & ROM and Secondary Storage Devices consists of CDROM, Disk, Magnetic Disk etc.

RAM (Random Access Memory) & ROM (Read only Memory)

Storing data is an important part of a computer system. The main concern of all computer designers is to create fast and efficient storage devices. As is commonly known, the primary memory inside the computer (Random Access Memory or RAM) is volatile i.e. whatever is stored in RAM is lost as soon as the computer is switched off. So if there is a need to save data from getting lost, it can be put on a storage device like floppy disk, hard disks and CD_ROMS before switching off the Computer.


It is a smaller capacity removable storage device. It is made up of thin and flexible plastic material. This thin plastic film is coated with a magnetic material known as iron oxide for recording data and is protected by a hard outer cover. It is very useful in transferring data from one computer to another. Write Protect Notch Plastic Jacket although technology has not changed substantially, floppy disks have certainly changed considerably in order to meet the very demanding needs of the marketplace. From an 8 inch size they have evolved to a much smaller size with larger capacities. Today’s standard 3.5 inch diskettes hold a formatted capacity of about 1.44 megabytes. The evolution of the personal computer acted as a catalyst primary for designers to reduce the size and cost of floppies. Very quickly the floppy became the standard method of exchanging data between personal computers. It also became the popular method of storing moderate amounts of information outside of the computer’s hard drive .diskettes are small, inexpensive, readily available, easy to store and have a good shelf life if stored properly.

Conventional floppy drives contain the following basic components:

1. A spindle clamping mechanism to hold the diskette in place as it spins.

2. Either one or two magnetic read/ write heads mounted on a mechanism that moves the heads across the diskette’s surface.

3. A sensor that detects the rotational position of the diskette via an index hole (or magnetic sensor in 3.5 inch drives) on floppy disks.

The floppy disk is divided into tracks and sectors. In the adjacent figure, the concentric circles are tracks and the slices parts of these tracks are called sectors. When the computer system needs to access data on the diskette, the read/write heads are stepped by signals generated by the computer system’s floppy controller. These steps are positioned along invisible concentric cylinders, which are usually referred to as “tracks”. The turning on of the computer system’s power results in the read/write heads of the drive being automatically set to track 0 (the first track and starting position). In most drives, this starting position is located by mans of a sensor in the drive, which has been adjusted to tell the floppy controller when the heads have reached the first track. If this sensor is not in proper adjusted to tell the floppy controller when the heads have reached the first track. If this sensor is not in proper adjustment, then this initial starting calibration is also incorrect and the heads are not properly positioned over track 0. In order to move the heads from this first track to other tracks, the head positioned simply moves in or out of one track for each step pulse received from the computer’s floppy controller.

Hard Disk Drive/Fixed Disk

It is a storage device with very large capacity, which ranges from 1 GB to Terabytes in the modern scenario. It is placed inside the cabinet of CPU (Although external hard drives are also available these days). It is not a removable drive in normal circumstances. A hard disk has a much larger storage capacity than a floppy disk. It is fitted inside the computer and cannot be seen by us. There can be one or more hard disks in the system unit of a computer. They were originally called “fixed disks” to distinguish them from “floppy disks.” Hard disks have a hard platter that holds the magnetic medium, as opposed to the flexible plastic film found in tapes and floppies. At the simplest level, a hard disk uses magnetic recording techniques just like the floppy disk. Major benefits of magnetic storage- the magnetic medium can be easily erased and rewritten, and it will remember” the magnetic flux pattern stored onto the medium for many years. The working of a hard disk is similar to that a floppy disk. In order to increase the amount of information the drive can store, most hard disks have multiple platters.

CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory)

It is a storage device with medium capacity i.e. to hold 650 MB/ 700 MB (60/80 Min. Audio/ Video). Computer has special drive known as CD- Drive to provide support for placing and running CDs. It can store data, audio and video. It is made up of plastic with special surface having optical sensitivity. CD-DRIVE has a laser light source that reads data from the CD-RO. The CD-ROM surface is a mirror covered with billions of tiny bumps that are arranged in a long, tightly wound spiral track of data, circling from the inside of the disc to the outside. The CD-Drive reads the bumps with a precise laser and interprets the information as bits of data.CD-ROMs are economical and easily available storage media. CDs are available in variations such as CD-R (Compact Disk Recordable) and CD-RW (Compact Disk Rewritable).The data on CD-R media can only be written once whereas CD_R media allows multiple writ/over-write operations on it. There are two types of CD Drives, one known as CD-R Drive that performs only read operation, and the other known as CD-RW Drive (or CD- Burner) that performs read as well write operations.


This is a type of flash memory storage device of the size of a thumb and can plug into the USB port of the computer. USB flash drives are more compact, generally faster, hold more date, and are more reliable (due to their lack of moving parts) than disk storage. Most flash drives use a standard USB connector, which is connected directly to the USB port on a personal computer.

Flash drive is nearly free scratch and dust problems that exist in the other storage media. Such as floppy disks and compact discs. This makes it ideal for transporting data or work files from one location to another, such as from home to school or office or work places. It also allows one to perform multiple read-write operations. Flash drives are also a relatively dense from of storage, where even the cheapest will store dozens of floppy disks worth of data. Some can hold more data than a CD (700 MB). Top of the line flash drives can store more data than a DVD. Flash drives often last for 500,000 or more erase/ write cycles. Optical storage devices are also slower than their flash-based counterparts.

In a computer there are various connectors and ports, which help in establishing a communication path between the CPU and the various above mentioned Storage devices. Before learning about the various available connectors, it is essential to be familiar with the following terms:

1. Cable is a wire.
2. Socket is the female side of a connector.
3. Pin is the male side of a connector.
4. Port is generally a place for physically connecting to some other device usually with a socket.

Parallel Port

Parallel ports can be used to connect a host of popular computer peripherals like:

• Printers
• Scanners
• CD burners
• External hard drives
• Iomega Zip removable drives
• Network adapters
• Tape backup drives

Parallel ports were originally developed by IBM as a way to connect a printer to PC. Parallel ports are also known as LPT ports. When a PC sends data to a printer or any other device using a parallel port, it sends 8 bits of data (1 byte) at a time. These 8 bits are transmitted parallel to each other all at once. The standard parallel port is capable of sending 50 to 100 kilobytes of data per second.


Serial ports, also called communication (COM) ports, support sequential data transmission and are bi-directional. As explained above, bi- directional communication allows each device to receive data as well as transmit it. The name “serial” comes from the byte one at a time serially one after the other. The main advantage is that a serial port ‘serializes” data. That is, it takes a byte of data and transmits the 8 bits in the byte one at a time serially one after the other. The main advantage is that a serial port needs only one wire to transmit the 8 bits (while a parallel port needs 8 because all 8 bits are sent in one go). The main disadvantage is that it takes 8 times longer to transmit the data than it would if there were 8 wires. Serial ports lower cable costs and make cables smaller. A serial port is commonly used to connect external modems, scanners or the older computer mouse to the computer. It comes in two versions, 9-pin and 25-pin. 25-pin COM connector is the older version while the 9-pin connector is the current standard. Data travels over a serial port at 115 kb per second. The following is a 9-pin serial port. In the past, connecting devices to computers had been a real headache. Printers connected to parallel printer ports, and most computers only came with one. Things like Zip drives, which need a high-speed connection into the computer, would use the parallel port as well, often with limited success and not much speed. The earlier version of Serial port (COM Port) had 9 pins in it. Modems used and serial port, but so did some printers and a variety of odd things like palm pilots and digital cameras. Most computers have at most two serial ports, and they are very slow in most cases. Devices that needed faster connections came with their own cards, which had to fit in a card slot inside the computer’s case. Unfortunately, the number of card slots is limited and a Ph.D. was needed to install the software for some of the cards.

USB (Universal Bus)

USB introduced in 1997 is a plug and play peripheral connection, which was invented to solve all these headaches. It is used to connect various devices, for example, digital joystick, a scanner, digital speakers, digital cameras, or a PC telephone etc. to the computer. USB is generally a two –and – a half-inch long port on the back of computers or built into a hatch on the front of a computer. The Universal Serial Bus provides a single, standardize, easy-to-use way to connect up to 127 devices to a computer. Just about every peripheral made now comes in a USB version. A sample list of USB devices that you can buy today includes:

Flight yoke
Digital camera
Web Cam
Scientific data acquisition device
Video phone
Storage device such as Zip drive
Network connection

Connecting a USB device to a computer is as simple as finding the USB connector on the back of the machine and plugging the USB connector into it. If it is a new device, the operating system auto-detects it and asks for the driver disk. If the device has already been installed, the computer activates it and starts talking to it. USB devices can be connected and disconnected at any time. Many USB devices come with their own built-in cable, and the cable has an “A” in the connection on it. If not, then the device has a socket on it that accepts a USB “B” connector.

The USB standard uses “A” connectors to avoid confusion: “A” connectors connect towards the computer while the “B” connectors connect to individual devices. By using different connectors it is impossible to ever get confused. Connect any USB cable’s “B” connector into a device and it is sure to work. The Universal Serial Bus is the hottest product in the computer market because of the following features:

• The computer acts as the host.

• Up to 127 devices can connect to the host, either directly or by way of USB hubs.

• Individual USB cables can run as long as 5 meters: with hubs, devices can be up to 30 meters (six cables’ worth) away from the host.

• With USB 2 , the bus has a maximum data rate of 480 megabits per second.

• A USB cable has two wires for power (+5 volts and ground) and a twisted pair of wires to carry the data. A typical “B” connector.

• On the power wires, the computer can supply up to 500 milliamps of power at 5 volts.

• Low-power devices (such as mice) can draw their power directly from the bus.

• High-power devices (such as printers) have their own power supplies and draw minimal power from the bus. Hubs can have their own power supplies to provide power to devices connected to the hub.

• USB devices are hot-swappable, meaning you can plug them into the bus and unplug them any time.


Computer software or just software is a general term used to describe a collection of computer programs, procedures and documentation that perform some tasks on a computer system. A Computer Software includes Programs fed into the computer system for processing data.

Practical computer systems divide software systems into the major classes: system software, programming software and application software, although the distinction is arbitrary, and often blurred.

System software

System software helps run the computer hardware and computer system. It includes combination of the following:

• Device drivers
• Operating systems
• Servers
• Utilities
• Windowing systems

The purpose of systems software is to unburden the applications programmer from the details of the particular computer complex being used, including such accessory devices as communications, printers, readers, displays, keyboards, etc. And also to partition the computer’s resources such as memory and processor time in a safe and stable manner.

Programming software

Programming software usually provides tools to assist a programmer in writing computer programs, and software using different programming languages in a more convenient way. The tools include:

• Compliers- translates the program written in high level language into machine language

• Debuggers- software to finds out the bugs or errors in the program

• Interpreters- translates the low level language into machine language

• Linkers- utility software which creates the link between high level and low level language to machine language

• Text editors- software used for editing and manipulating text

Application Software

Application software allows end users to accomplish one or more specific (not directly computer development related) tasks. Typical applications include:

• Industrial automation
• Business software
• Computer games
• Telecommunications (i.e., the internet and everything that flows on it)
• Databases
• Educational software
• Medical software


Operating system (commonly abbreviated to either OS or O/S) is an interface between hardware and user: it is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and coordination of activities and the sharing of the resources of the computer. The operating system acts as a host for computing applications that are run on the machine. As a host, one of the purposes of an operating system is to handle the details of the operation of the hardware. This relieves application programs from having to manage these details and makes it easier to write applications.

It should be noted that some parts of the Operating System must be loaded and running all the time programs falling into this category include instructions facilitating the transfer of keyboard commands or the relaying of information to the computer peripheral devices. The files enabling these basic functions are usually called Internal OS Procedure.

Functions of Operating System

There is a wide range of Operating System available for various computer systems providing a host of different services. However, there is a certain group of functions common to most modern OS. The main functions of Operating System is given as follows:

1. Control of User Interface.
2. Control of Peripheral devices.
3. File Management.
4. Memory Management.
5. Network facilities.
6. Program Scheduling.
7. Fault monitoring.
8. Virus Checking.

Types of Operating System


The origins of Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS- DOS) li in the prelaunch era of the IBM PC. As IBM was about to finalize the PC, it started to negotiate with other computer companies to secure a suitable OS for the product. Initial contracts between IBM and Digital Research, the company which happened to own the rights to Control Program for a Micro Computer which was at that time, the market leader in microcomputer OS, proved unsuccessful.

In 1980, IBM and Microsoft started negotiations for the production of a suitable OS and finally Operating System known as Microsoft Disk Operating System was introduced for IBM PC and it was 16 bit operating system.


The first version of Windows was launched in 1983 by Microsoft which was not successful and later in 1990 Windows 3 was released and it became successful and 45 million copies of Windows 3 were sold through the World. Windows 3 was a 16 bit Operating System for personal Computers which introduced a special concept of Graphical User Interface. The user can operate the computer very easily using Windows 3 with the help of Mouse.


Windows 95 was the first 32 bit operating system introduced by Microsoft in August 1995. Windows 95 had several user friendly features which attracted many users. Windows 95 had built in Network features which enabled the computer connected to Other Networks such as Novell Network and Internet.


Unlike Windows 3 and Windows 95, Windows New Technology (NT) is what is known as an industry standard mission critical OS.As a 32 bit OS Windows NT represents the preferred platform for Intl’s more powerful Pentium range Processors. The main features of Windows NT are as follows:

• A Stable Multitasking Environment
• Enhanced Security Features
• Increased Memory
• Network Utilities
• Portability


In 1987 IBM and Microsoft announced a new PC OS called OS/2 (Operating System Two). Unfortunately, the original OS/2 was not very successful. A serious problem with the original OS/2 is that it was unable to support many existing PC applications so the users faced many problems due to lack of compatibility between the software and OS/2. So OS/2 became unpopular.


• Windows XP Professional Edition- A version used by many businesses on workstations. It has the ability to become a member of a corporate domain.

• Windows XP Home Edition-A lower cost version of Windows NT which is for home use only and should not be used at a business.

• Windows-2000- A better version of the Windows NT operating system which works well both at home and as a workstation at a business. It includes technologies which allow hardware to be automatically detected and other enhancements over Windows NT.

• Windows ME- A upgraded version from windows 98 but it has been historically plagued with programming errors which may be frustrating for home users.

• Windows 98- This was produced in two main versions. The first Windows 98 version was plagued with programming errors but the Windows 98 Second Edition which came out later was much better with many errors resolved.

• Windows NT - A version of Windows made specifically for businesses offering better control over workstation capabilities to help network administrators.

• Windows 95- The first version of Windows after the older Windows 3. X versions offering a better interface and better library functions for programs.


A computer network is a group of interconnected computers. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics. This article provides a general overview of some types and categories and also presents the basic components of a network.

A computer network is a collection of computers and devices connected to each other. The network allows computers to communicate with each other and share resources and information. The Advanced research Projects Agency (APRA) designed” Advanced Research Projects Agency Network” (ARPANET) for the United States Department of Defense. It was the first computer network in the world in late 1960s and early 1970s.


Computer network may be classified according to the network topology upon which the network is based, such as bus network star network, ring network, mesh network, star- bus network, tree or hierarchical topology network. Network topology signifies the way in which devices in the network see their logical relations to one another. The use of the term “logical” here is significant. That is, network topology is independent of the “physical” layout of the network. Even if networked computers are physically placed in a linear arrangement, if they are connected via a hub, the network has a Star topology, rather than a bus topology. In this regard the visual and operational characteristics of a network may be classified based on the method of data used to convey the data, these include digital and analog networks.


There are various types of network depending upon the characteristic of network which includes the following:

LAN- Local Area Network
WAN- Wide Area Network
MAN- Metropolitan Network
Wireless Networking


The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standardized Internet protocol Suite (TCP/IP). It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private and public, academic, business and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, and other technologies.

The Internet carries a vast array of information resources and services, most notably, the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail, in addition to popular services such as online chat, file transfer and file sharing, online gaming, and Voice over Internet Protocol ( VoIP) person-to-person communication via voice and video.

The origins of the Internet reach back to the 1960s when the United States funded research projects of its military agencies to build robust, fault- tolerant and distributed computer network s, This research and a period of civilian funding of a new U.S. backbone by the National Science Foundation spawned worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies and led to the commercialization of an international network in the mid-1990s and resulted in the following popularization of countless application uses the services of the Internet.

Internet Protocols

The Internet Protocol (IP) is a protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite, also referred to as TCP/IP.

IP is the primary protocol in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite and has the task of delivering distinguished protocol datagrams (Packets) from the source host to the destination host solely based on their addresses. For this purpose the Internet Protocol defines addressing methods and structures for data gram encapsulation. The first major version of addressing structure, now referred to as Internet Protocol Version4 (IPv4) is still the dominant protocol of the Internet, although the successor, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is being deployed actively worldwide.

The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. TCP is one of the two original components, With Internet Protocol (IP), of the suite, so that the entire suit is commonly referred to as TCP/IP. Whereas IP handles lower-level transmissions from computer to computer as a message makes its way across the Internet, TCP operates at a higher level, concerned only with the two end systems, for example, a Web browser and a Web server. In particular, TCP provides reliable, ordered delivery of a stream of bytes from a program on one computer to another program on another computer. Besides the Web, other common applications of TCP include e-mail and file transfer. Among its other management tasks, TCP controls message size, the rate at which messages are exchanged, and network traffic congestion.
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Review Questions
  • 1. What is the role of development of communication in relation to information technology?
  • 2. What is computer hardware? Discuss briefly the various hardware components available under the computer technology?
  • 3. What is computer software? Discuss briefly the various software programs that helps perform tasks in a computer system?
  • 4. Explain in detail the following:
    a. Serial ports
    b. USB ports
  • 5. What is an operating system? Describe in detail the types and functions of different operating systems available for use? Discuss them in brief.
  • 6. What is meant by computer network? What are the various networks available for use? Discuss them in brief.
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